Arts & Humanities
- Multidisciplinary approaches to explore and understand connections (or lack of them) between ecology and urban planning, waste management, creative recycling methods, flora and fauna and environment relationships
- Olfactory, gastronomy and medicine histories
- Ecological history
- Social memory
- Oral histories
- Critical translations of primary textual sources
Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences
A. Economic Stability, Growth and Development
- Fiscal, monetary and price stability.
- Investment, savings and economic growth.
- Export competitiveness and balance of payment fragility as a constraint to stability and growth.
- Employment, skills development and labor market imperfections and interventions
- Interplay between population growth and economic development
B. Agricultural Productivity and Food Security
C. Water Management and Sustainability
- Investing in new water storage and distribution infrastructure;
- Repairing and upgrading the irrigation infrastructure to reduce losses in irrigation water and contamination of drinking water;
- Improving the quality of water through well integrated drainage systems and large-scale, low cost, and scalable waste water treatment systems;
- Enhancing financing for water sector through rationalizing of water rates and water charges;
- Reducing excessive mining of groundwater through better regulation and pricing mechanisms; and through Innovative socio-technical approaches to water conservation.
- Research should help find the most efficient modes and phasing of water sector reforms and investments.
D. Sustainable Energy
- Battery and storage technologies
- Efficient and smart grids focusing on grand challenges such as low cost electric mobility solutions
- Sustainable platforms for urban, rural, and intercity mobility
- Smart and sustainable energy solutions for urban, rural, and remote areas
- Innovation mechanisms for reduction in transmission and grid losses in legacy infrastructures
E. Sociology and Philosophy
1. Identity politics
- Thorough research into the factors leading to the perpetuation of Pakistan’s identity crisis and in defining the pathways to robust nation building is a critical need of our times.
2. Gender (disparity)
- Serious research is needed to highlight the factors responsible for, and the social and economic cost of, the prevailing gender gap and discrimination, and to identify pathways for better gender equality in the country.
- Research is needed on both the micro and macro causes and effects of high population growth and on better management of population programs and population.
F. Urban Planning
- Sustainable urban design
- Low-cost housing
- Mobility, and transport
- Planning for and preservation of urban space and life
- Economic, sociological, and cultural triggers for the planning and creation of second tier (and new) cities and towns
- Provision of quality of urban life such as issues related to transportation and congestion, waste collection and disposal, water and sanitation, healthcare and education, and law and order.
G. Climate Change and Environment
- Climate mitigation, adaptation and disaster management
- Metro-scale pollution reduction technologies and solution (such as Lahore smog or Karachi’s waste)
- Enhancement of the capacity to carry out climate modelling and evidence based policy and planning; addressing and mitigation of large climate change impacts on marginal communities; climate and disaster surveillance and management systems, etc.
H. Information Technology and Telecom
- Artificial Intelligence, Cybersecurity, Cloud Computing and Big Data
- Development and use of education and health-related information and communication technologies such as exploitation of economic and technological impacts of mobile broadband and 3G/4G networks particularly for less literate and largely illiterate populations
- Addressing the disparities in access of technology; development, deployment, and exploitation of 5G networks; 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR) within the Pakistani context
- Scalable models of education and healthcare delivery through the use of ICT.
I. Innovative Governance and Reforms
- Participatory government and its effectiveness
- Redefining the role of government
- Civil service reforms
- Judicial reforms
- Incentive structures accountability and government responsiveness
- Effective use of open data (OD) in evidence-based policy making
- Transparency and use of Right to Information (RTI), citizen scorecards, or similar mechanisms for holding the government to account; mechanisms for creating local capacity to provide policy advice in areas of critical national importance.
- Police Sciences
- Crime Prevention, Detection, Pre-emption of Crime,
- Evolution of Police Functions
- Democratic Governance of Law Enforcement
- Cloud computing & paperless offices for police
- Cyber Space challenges
- Remote applications for smart policing
- Cyber Crimes fighting , Intelligence/information collection and sharing
- Computational Criminology
11. Statistics & data Management
- Crime data collation in Police departments
- Statistical models
- Crime mapping
- Data usages for evidence based policing
- Investigation, Prosecution, Probation, Prisoners and Prisons, Criminology,
- Crime Syndicates, Gender related Crimes, Harassment at work place, Drug Related Crimes, Smuggling and Human Trafficking, Money Laundering,
- Transport & smart Traffic management
- Smart cities
- Transnational crime
- Behavioral Sciences applications in the said fields
- Mental health
- Pre-Cognitive crime fighting
16. Criminal Justice System of Pakistan Reforms
- Human Rights,
- Restoration & Retribution
17. International & UN law
- Regional and International Treaties and implementation status In Criminal Justice of Pakistan
18. Organisational Management
- Human Resource Management,
- Project Management, Police Management
- Public Administration of Police
A. Crop Production
- Bridging yield gap of major crops by identifying predominant constraints for sizable yield gaps and proposing suitable measures to bridge the gaps. Listing of high yields by progressive farmers and average yields by small farmers for the same zone, and identifying main causes for low yields (like availability of credit, certified seed, fertilizer, pesticide), lack of knowledge about appropriate production technology, marketing problems, etc. Quantifying the contribution of each major constraint on yield reduction and propose measures to reduce the yield gap
- Improving crop varieties: Variety development for high yield, better quality (stress tolerance, diversification, pest- & disease-resistance, climate resilience and nutritional quality) by conventional and novel technologies such as biotechnology and genetic engineering
- Hybrid seed development of vegetables, oilseeds and fodders. Also, training of concerned scientists in hybrid seed production technology
- Integrated pest management (IPM) of emerging and invasive outbreaks of insect pests and diseases of agronomic and horticultural crops such as locust, armyworms, fruit flies, whiteflies and leafhoppers on crops and vegetables; leaf curl virus and pink bollworm on cotton; aphids and rusts on wheat; and plant hoppers and blast on rice
- Floriculture (export prospects): Hybrid flower development, enhancement of flower setting period and shelf life, efficient processing, and quality packing for international market development
- Farm machinery development for crop sowing, intercultural practices, residue management, harvesting and grain drying for small farmers. Reverse engineering of imported small implements, development of their models for the hiring centers at village level, and improved designing of the existing farm implements
B. Soil Health, Produce Quality and Precision Agriculture
- Soil health: Improving soil health by, but not limited to, zero/minimum tillage, crop residue recycling, mulching, soil conservation, legume intercropping, and efficient and integrated nutrient management including micronutrients and biofertilizers. Also, quality farm yard manure and compost production from major urban livestock clusters as in Karachi.
Crop Produce Quality: Improving nutritional quality of crop produce by adopting, but not limited to, site-specific balanced nutrient management and biofortification (genetic and agronomic).Value-added agriculture for rural industrialization: R&D in dehydration, processing and preservation of fruits and vegetables; nutraceutical oils; herbal extracts; packing, freezing and pickling of vegetables.Mushroom culture, improved beekeeping and organic farming (for the health conscious clientele).
- Soil Tillage Management
- Zero/Minimum Tillage/ Conservation Tillage/ Raised Bed Technology
- Improving Soil Organic Matter:
- Crop Residue Recycling, Mulching, Green Manuring, legume intercropping
- Soil Conservation
- Efficient and Integrated Nutrient Management including micronutrients and biofertilizers.
- Manure/ Compost Production
C. Water Productivity and Climate Change
- Improve water productivity and sustainability: River basin management (IWRM approach) for groundwater management (for quantity & quality); improving water productivity; climate smart water management; and appropriate crop zoning, cropping patterns, ecosystem improvement, water governance (demand based irrigation, appropriate water pricing, pancho irrigation etc.)
- Utilizing non-conventional water resources and improving irrigation water delivery systems: Utilizing wastewater, drainage effluents, saline water, rainwater, hill torrents, etc. Coastal areas and wetlands management.
- Climate smart agriculture: Adapting agriculture production to climate change by developing climate resilient crop varieties with regard to heat, drought and flooding (especially of wheat and cotton). Model climate scenario till 2050, propose revised crop zones due to climate change and identify areas that may become unfit for specific crops; and review water availability situation because of climate change.
D. Animal Health and Production
1. Animal Production: The emphasis is productivity improvement per unit animal of milk, meat and eggs
- Animal Breeding and Genetics
- Developing breeding models for dairy, beef and small ruminants for different livestock farming systems
- Indigenous breeds improvement
- Improvement in genetic potential of fishes
2. Capturing international markets
- Animal Management Strategies
- Business models for calf raising
- Smart livestock and poultry farming by devising smart housing, nutritional and management plans
- Productivity improvement in aquaculture
- Animal Reproduction
- Minerals’ role in buffalo reproduction
- Improved management strategies for enhancing reproductive efficiency
- Animal Nutrition
- Fine-tuning feeding strategies
- Nutritional interventions (including local soybean production) for reducing cost of production
- Developing improved methods of silage, hay and feed production at farm level
- Biofortification using animals
- Non-traditional animal farming with value chain studies
- Marketing of Livestock and Livestock products
- Internationally accepted sanitary and phytosanitary measures
- Economic analysis of HILAL meat to capture international markets
- Effect of uncapping of meat and milk pricing on their productivity
- Food (of animal origin) and feed safety
- Value chain studies for increasing export
3. Animal Health
- Veterinary vaccines: Improving field efficacy of existing veterinary vaccines and new veterinary vaccines
- Development of field (animal-side / penside) diagnostic tests
- Epidemiology of newly emerging diseases
- Fish diseases in aquaculture
- Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
- One health research
Biological & Health Sciences
A. Public Health Surveillance and Epidemiology
- Investigating cellular and molecular basis of immunity to common infections and outbreaks such as SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on possible interactions with infectious agents endemic to Pakistan
- Utilizing genomic epidemiology to investigate spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Pakistan.
- COVID-19 and Infectious diseases (biosafety, biosecurity, active surveillance)
- TB, AIDS, Dengue & Malaria (Community engagement & mobilization; resistance strengthening; environmental strategies for vector control)
- Monitoring and management of drug resistance in infectious diseases
- Drug Addiction
- Promotion of probiotics for health and prevention
- Profiling of microbiome in healthy and diseased population
- Studies on Microbiome and its relation to disease; both in humans and plants
- Metagenomic approaches to elucidate plant microbial interactions.
- What is the gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing) of the rural and urban population of Pakistan and association with metabolomics?
- Relationship of gut microbiota composition health, immune system and disease
B. Immunology, Diagnostics & Vaccine Technology
- Development of Diagnostics for common infectious diseases and risk factors (research questions surrounding low cost and affordability)
- Vaccines (collaborative research aiming technology transfer and indigenization)
- Development of molecular diagnostic assays for screening of common genetic disorders in Pakistan as a risk reduction strategy (e.g. could include inherited neurological or metabolic disorders)
- Establishment and scale-up of recombinant vector for expression systems for different target antigens such as, adenovirus vectors, lipid delivery systems.
- Establishment of immunological protocol for the testing of vaccine efficacy – development of assays to measure adaptive immunity.
- Enzymes for the industry. All kinds of enzymes in textile, detergent and food industry are imported at huge cost. These are all genetically modified. Expertise in the country exists to do all this and be competitive.
- Molecular Biology biochemicals especially used in PCR, Taq-polymerase, Reverse Transcriptase, Restriction Enzymes can be prepared locally to save the imported costs.
- Surveys and monitoring for emerging zoonotic diseases
- Intelligent and point of care diagnostics based on CRISPR-Cas and other emerging technologies
- Stem cells and regenerative medicine
- Health Information Technology research to identify medical errors at healthcare units and improve the healthcare by looking at retrospective records of patients. It can also identify disparities in the healthcare system such as lack of access and its outcome
C. Non-Communicable Diseases, Population Health and Genomics
- Obesity (lifestyle and nutrition) and its consequences (NASH, DM, HTN, Dyslipidemia, OSA, mechanical problems)
- Diabetes (developing operational pilots for holistic and integrated, primary care models)
- Cardiovascular diseases (research questions surrounding low cost and affordability)
- Public mental health problems (research questions surrounding its demystification, and trickle down to lower tiers, i.e., primary care setting)
- Use of population genomics to recommend drugs better suited for our population
- Cancer genomics to avoid unnecessary treatment and better treatment options
- Prevention of genetic diseases by developing a SNP chip based on common mutations associated with genetic disorders in Pakistan
- Studies on genetic disorders, developing early diagnostic approaches for diseases such as Autism and Alzheimer
- Studies on Leukemia and beta Thalassemia; mapping of mutations and development of pre-natal diagnosis
- Understanding biochemical mechanism of tumor suppressor proteins and to use them for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes
- Tobacco consumption (health consequences; decreasing uptake and increasing cessation with special focus on reducing inequalities in tobacco related harm)
- Air Pollution (strategies for minimizing air pollution and its impact on health)
- Impact of injury on health and productivity (RTA/accidents, industrial injury, violence, poisoning & chemical exposure, bite & stings and burns)
D. Food security, nutrition and human capital
- Food security research, its measurement and consequences on human health and capital
- Undernutrition (stunting, wasting), risk factors, consequences and potential solutions for Pakistan
- Micronutrient deficiencies, risk factors, consequences & potential solutions for Pakistan
- Cost effectiveness research to address the double burden of malnutrition and nutrition transition (overweight and obesity)
- Implementation research to address nutrition problems in Pakistan
- Research to address gender dimensions of malnutrition
- Impact of undernutrition on early child development and potential undernutrition
- Addressing nutrition problems across the life course
- Impact of climate change on health and nutrition and measurement
- Employment of different technologies to provide clean drinking water.
- Use of genome editing and gene drive for control of insects pests of crop and disease vectors for human and animal diseases
- Vaccines for livestock and poultry**
- Development of nutraceutical production from medicinal plants
- Studies on Plant-Microbiome and its relation to plant health and disease
- Biofortification for enhancing the nutritive value of edible crops**
- Use of genomics and sexed semen for enhancing the quality and quantity of milk and meat production
- Use of genome editing, genomic selection and speed breeding for fast-track development of elite germplasm in major crops such as rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, potato, oilseed mustard, sorghum, millet
- Promotion of biofertilizers and use of fertilizer use efficient crops to decrease the use chemical fertilizers by half
- Decrease in use of chemical pesticides by promotion of biopesticides to save water bodies and groundwater from contamination and promote export of healthy food crops
E. Climate change, environmental stress and health
F. Bio‐informatics & Big‐data Analytics
G. Drug Abuse
- Influence of health education on prevention of drug abuse
- Drug abuse prevention starts with parents
- How can prescription drugs misuse be prevented?
- Principles of school drug education
Engineering & Technology:
A. Food Security
1. Agriculture Equipment
2. Smart Agriculture Tools
3. Future Agriculture
4. Smart and sustainable food production and processing
5. Cyber Physical Systems for Agriculture
B. Water Management and Sustainability
1. Development of Water management equipment/tools/ techniques
2. Recycling of waste water
3. Devices of efficient management of water
4. Data Science for water management
5. Methods of water storage
6. Water Quality Monitoring and Control Systems
C. Sustainable Energy
1. Devices/equipment for renewable energy system development
2. Low cost methods for clean energy
3. Methods for line loss reductions
4. Smart grids
5. Energy management
6. Solar and wind power plants
7. Biomass/biofuels development from waste
8. Solar Thermal Systems for Comfort Conditioning
D. Development Economics
1. Product development
2. Innovation of products for local and foreign market
3. Reverse supply chains
4. Pandemic / disaster resilient economic models and solutions
5. Efficient Industrial Systems Design Technologies
6. Techniques for Enhancing Product
7. Efficient Inventory Control Strategies
8. Smart Quality Monitoring Systems
9. Supply Chain Management
10. Energy Efficient Systems
11. Smart Systems for Market Analysis/Forecasting
E. Urban Planning
1. Smart cities
2. Environment monitoring system
3. Smart security
4. Sustainable communities
5. Environment monitoring system for efficient observation and feedback for sustainable communities
6. Remote Traffic Management and Control Systems
7. Solid Waste Management and Recycling Technologies
F. Climate Change and Environment
1. Smart devices for environment monitoring
3. Smart systems for climate monitoring
4. Smart devices for geological studies including but not limited to monitor climate/ weather/ earthquakes/ floods
5. Smart devices for monitoring climate changes e.g. Ozone layer/ weather/ floods
G. Information Technology & telecommunications
1. Artificial intelligence
2. Cyber physical systems
4. Cloud computing
5. Data Science
6. Industry 4.0
7. Health 4.0
8. E-commerce and e-governance applications
9. Tele/Online Education Systems
10. Virtual Labs
1. Smart and efficient health systems
2. Biomedical devices and equipment
3. Innovative biotechnological solutions for physical well-being
4. Neuroscience and its application in rehabilitation
5. Biotechnological waste-water treatment
6. Efficient medical diagnostics
7. Medical imaging
8. Rehabilitation Systems
9. Smart Patient Monitoring Systems
10. Bio-Mechatronic Systems
I. Technological solutions in agriculture and livestock:
1. Smart solutions in agriculture and live stocks
2. Targeted research in solving the local problems in agriculture
3. Improved equipment, tools, techniques and smart methods for improving agriculture
4. Hydroponic Systems
J. Entrepreneurial/Job-creation activities
1. Solution leading to job creation
2. Entrepreneurial solutions
3. Enhancing employment opportunities for youth
K. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing
1. Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Technologies & Systems
2. Advanced composites and materials with applications in the medical devices, automotive, aerospace, electricals, electronics, industrial and power sectors etc.
L. Advanced Technologies
1. Emerging advanced technologies for solving the local problems to create societal/ socio-economic impact.
2. Some examples include but not limited to:
3. Nanotechnology / Nanosensors
4. Electrical Vehicles
5. Optoelectronic based industrial solutions
6. Energy Storage Technologies
7. Blockchain applications
Mathematical & Physical Sciences
A. Transport and smart mobility
- Development of new automobile and driving systems constituted of engines made from
- New materials or alloys developed components with longer life and better fuel efficiency.
- Developing of digital/computer controlled software, coupled with sensing and monitoring systems
- Better and improved alternate energy providing systems like batteries with high charge/ discharge cycles, longer life, consisting of electrodes coated with cheaper and better materials to host chemical reactions for better efficiencies and better ion conducting solid electrolytes properties,
- Coating of vehicles with semiconducting material to convert sun light and heat to electricity to run the vehicle for its mobility.
- To produce mobile oil from local resources with better lubricating and decreasing fuel consumption.
B. Health and wellbeing
- To develop copper and zinc embedded textiles to inhibit infection in the form of Masks
- To stop and break the RNA and DNA structure covalent bonds of bacteria and virus
- Fibers and clothing for protecting dresses with antimicrobial properties
- Bed sheets to reduce infection in the hospitals
- Developing two phase coupled transport membranes based ointments to heal injuries and burn at a faster rate for quick healing
- Fabrication of wearable blood dialysis system based on high specific area containing materials.
- Development of membranes for hemodialysis and fabrication of this system in Pakistan plus its commercialization
- To develop hydrogen storing nano materials with high energy density including aluminum alloys with other metals and their oxides with low cost
- Stable and viscous liquids for electric transformers and solar energy concentrators
- Design and development of fuel cells of higher power e.g. greater than 0.5MWe
- Membranes for fuel cells and electro dialysis systems
- Energy systems based on solute or salt concentration system
- Optimal control methods development to maximize energy efficiency
- Metal ions separations from minerals.
- New nuclear reactions with better control and safety
- Oxygen enrichment in air for fuel burning reaction for efficiency improvement
- Thin film solid electrolytes for optical and energy storage applications
- Fuel cells based on membranes fabrication in Pakistan
- Fabrication of high capacity nickel hydride batteries
- Fabrication of intermediate temperature and membranes based fuel cells
- Inorganic membranes and modules fabrication study for natural gas purification with respect H2S and other impurities
- Energy systems using gas phase cooling systems to save huge amount of water
- Design and fabrication of hydro, gas and steam turbines in Pakistan
- Fuel cells study as an alternate system to classical electricity generation
- Enzymatic scarification of wheat straw for enhancing bio ethanol production
D. Digital industry and digital life
- Study of the economic benefits in term of profit earned in Pakistan by different companies and how to save foreign exchange transfer and its saving: methods and viable proposals and solutions
F. Smart cities and communities
- To develop cheaper and new construction materials and bricks with water resistance and mitigating pollution.
- Design study of self-sustained houses based on solar systems with improved efficiencies and reduced cost
- To develop foldable and flexible dye sensitized solar energy harnessing systems for house windows and roofs
- Self-cleaning paint development for decomposition of pollutants in air
G. Process technology, equipment, materials and manufacturing
1. Technology transfer option is to be part of procurement or purchase of plants and equipment.
2. Related field capacity building through training courses for technicians and researchers
3. Applied research related to plants, equipment and analytical instrument
4. Innovative scientist and engineers and other professionals must be appreciated and rewarded
through early promotions and financial awards and support.
5. Visits of capable people abroad for assimilation of new research ideas and technical processes.
6. Synthesis of ionic liquid
7. Actinide and lanthanide metal extraction using various techniques for waste disposal.
8. Microbial/biological water filter development and fabrication for water and gaseous purification
9. Rapid chemical processes development with miniaturized cells for production of chemicals
10. Study of breaking of water and alcohol zoetrope’s using ionic liquids
11. Water splitting by using solar visible spectrum heat and energy for hydrogen production.
12. Green chemistry processes development for safe production of chemicals with simple reaction
13. PVC and other polymer supported nano metal particles based catalyst making for better hydrogenation reactions
14. Ozonation of drinking water and waste water effluents system for its optimal use to remove biological pollution
15. Rapid carbon dioxide conversion to produce short chains olefins, dimethyl ether and hydrocarbons
16. Fabrication of toxic element detection sensors for pollution control
17. Development of electrodes for heavy metal detection
18. Polymers of transition metals for metal ions separations
19. Development of SLM systems for metal ions extraction from low and high concentration feed solutions. Application for recovery of gold, silver. Copper and other metals from minerals
20. Long distance remote sensing of chemical/biological trace element
21. Design & Development of TW laser system.
- Online Pollution monitoring, like NO2 & SO2 etc.
- Agriculture LIDA
- Table Top X –rays Generation
- Electron acceleration
- Generation of THz radiations for research and security applications.
- High Resolution Time Resolved Spectroscopy
- (Ultrafast Spectroscopy)
- Nuclear Transmutation
- Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.
- Material processing
- Medical applications
- And many more applications
22. MEMs Based Sensor / Detector Fabrication (Device based Micro/nano-fabrication).
- Ultrafast Ferro electricity and magnetism by non-linear photonics.
- Super-resolution imaging via linear and nonlinear optics
- Ultrafast Ferro electricity and magnetism by non-linear photonics.
- Super-resolution imaging via linear and nonlinear optics
23. Development of cold atoms sources for quantum technology
24. Crystal making of alkaline metal halides and to create facilities for that
25. Ceramics for engines and sensors for various applications in industry
26. Elimination of toxic functional groups like aldehyde , cyanides nitrite and nitrates from the chemicals in polluted aqueous liquids.
27. Synthesis of better and cleaner catalysts to reduce waste produced per Kg product
28. Bi-phase- sono- electro synthesis of different chemicals in Pakistan
29. Ion chromatographic system coupling with mass stereoscopy for better limits of detection
30. Inorganic membrane systems for chemicals production, water purification sensors for detection of metal ions and their separation.
H. Climate change and pollution mitigation
- Plantation of rapid early growing varieties trees and plants
- Protection of available trees and through artificial intelligence system controls
- Use of membrane systems for gaseous and water industrial waste.
- Design and development of hybrid membranes and classical system per requirement of site and location
- Processes identification and development of hospital waste treatment
- Removal of arsenic and other toxic metal elements from industrial effluents, water underground aquifers.
- Fabrication and Manufacturing process development of various membranes systems and modules in Pakistan through industry involvement
I. Food security
- Invent and discover new varieties of wheat, rice, sugar cane, pulses and maize
- Identification of new varieties using less water to reduce water consumption in agriculture.
- Production of chemicals to kill pests
- Improve food stock production and control of export and import
- Provide land to landless tenants
- Extend cultivated area to enhance the overall production of wheat, rice, and maize etc.
- Develop and invent new chemical fertilizers with better efficiency and low cost of production
- Reduce undernourished population by providing fortified food products
- Reduce population growth rate
- Improve crop management practices
J. Water management
- Develop techniques to control water charge-discharge in soil
- Recover fresh water from salt water tube well pumped to waste water channels and recover energy by using efficient low pressure turbines.
- To solve problems with India and Afghanistan
- Water treatment membrane and desalination systems development and use for getting drinking and process ultrapure water.
- Recovery of water from industrial effluents, sewerage outputs for reuse for agriculture and horticulture use.
- To establish a membranes based processes institute. It is to be the first one in Pakistan
K. Equity and social justice
L. Governance and corruption plus terrorism and crime Control
- Good governance can be ensured with zero corruption
- Include honest, innovative and capable people
- No crime is possible only without the police and district management/administration support. SOP s for handling criminal people are to be made.